The Invisible Scar

raising awareness of emotional child abuse, its effects on adult survivors & the power of words on children

For Adult Survivors of Emotional Child Abuse

Facing the truth of one’s emotional child abuse takes a special kind of courage. But to be an emotionally healthy adult, the truth must be known, so that healing can begin, and the pattern doesn’t repeat.

An emotionally abused child who does not, as an adult, face the truth of their childhood is in great danger of repeating the cycle of emotional abuse with his or her own children.

“As long as [the experience of cruelty] remains hidden behind their idealized picture of a happy childhood, they will have no awareness of it and will therefore be unable to avoid passing it on. It is absolutely urgent that people become aware of the degree to which this disrespect of children is persistently transmitted from one generation to the next, perpetuating destructive behavior.” (Alice Miller, “The Drama of the Gifted Child: The Search for Self”)

Unfortunately, because emotional abuse is often tolerated or because the abusive parents are very secretive in their abuse (hiding their true selves when in public), emotionally abused children will assume that how they were treated at home was natural. They have no frame of reference. And so, the child will develop a skewed sense of what a healthy relationship is.

Emotionally abused children become adults with little or no self-esteem; a deep, pervasive sadness; problems bonding with others; and a tendency towards self-destruction.

Hope Is in the Truth

Emotionally abused children will not always become emotionally abusive parents, however. Studies indicate that the number of abused children perpetuating the cycle of abuse is far lower than previously thought.

“In a survey of such studies, Joan Kaufman and Edward Zigler, psychologists at Yale, concluded that 30 percent is the best estimate of the rate at which abuse of one generation is repeated in the next. ” (New York Times article, “Sad Legacy of Abuse: The Search for Remedies“)

The study shows that the denial of abuse can be the greatest indicator of future trouble. Hence, the abused child who grows up to be an adult who denies having been abused has the greatest risk of becoming an abuser. But adult survivors of childhood emotional abuse who awaken to the truth of their damaging childhood, and strive to do the opposite of what they have been taught will NOT emotionally abuse their children.

If the adult seeks therapy and healing from an abusive childhood, the adult child can break the emotional abuse cycle and not perpetuate the abuse with their own children.

Healing from an emotionally abusive childhood can be very difficult, but as Andrew Vachss says:

Adult survivors of emotional child abuse have only two life-choices: learn to self-reference or remain a victim. When your self-concept has been shredded, when you have been deeply injured and made to feel the injury was all your fault, when you look for approval to those who can not or will not provide it—you play the role assigned to you by your abusers.

It’s time to stop playing that role, time to write your own script. Victims of emotional abuse carry the cure in their own hearts and souls. Salvation means learning self-respect, earning the respect of others and making that respect the absolutely irreducible minimum requirement for all intimate relationships. For the emotionally abused child, healing does come down to “forgiveness”—forgiveness of yourself.

How you forgive yourself is as individual as you are. But knowing you deserve to be loved and respected and empowering yourself with a commitment to try is more than half the battle. Much more.

And it is never too soon—or too late—to start.

Please seek professional help, read good books, turn to supportive friends, and don’t give up. Ever.

15 Tips for Adult Survivors

An emotionally abused child usually continues being emotionally abused by the parents long into adulthood. The patterns have already been established since the child’s earliest years. The dynamics of the family have been set into place. Nothing is to drastically change it—unless the child grown up awakens.

Some adults experience a jolt, a sudden flash of memory, that is triggered by an event, a song, a movie scene, anything, really. Others remain asleep until the abusive parents become abusive grandparents—continuing the cycle of emotional abuse to the adult survivor’s children. Others will just reach the point where they cannot take it anymore; enough is enough.

And the abused child-turned-adult awakens, slowly realizing that not everything is as it has seemed. Everything is different now.

Taking the red pill regarding your emotionally abusive childhood leads to a very difficult path—but the important thing is that it is a path. You no longer remain stuck, wondering about the pervasive depression or sorrow.

Best of all, you can break the cycle. You can heal. You can reclaim yourself.

Here are some suggestions as  you begin your path to healing.

1. Seek professional help from someone who understands emotional child abuse. 

Before signing up for regular visits with a psychologist, have a preliminary meeting to gauge whether the counselor and  you are a good match. So much can affect a counseling session—from the setup of the room to the type of therapy the counselor favors. Some counselors prefer a very aloof clinical approach; others are more inclined to Conrad Baars school of thought.

2. Create some distance between you and your abusive parent.

You will find it difficult to put your new thoughts in perspective if you are still immersed into your parents’ lives. So, you need to create some space. Let them know that you need time to think about things.

“Adult children who have never spiritually and emotionally separated from their parents often need time away. They have spent their whole lives embracing and keeping and have been afraid to refrain from embracing and to throw away from of their outgrown ways of relating. They need to spend some time building boundaries against the old ways and creating new ways of relating that for a while may feel alienating to their parents.” (“Boundaries: When to Say Yes, How to Say No and Take Control of Your Life, pg. 38)

In some cases, adult children will find healing, and they will eventually find new ways of communicating with their parents that is healthy.

However, do note that in many cases, especially when dealing with narcissistic parents, your saying you need space will be seen as throwing down a gauntlet. In some extreme cases, narcissistic parents will sense that their adult child is beginning to awaken and the abuse will increase (and even get outrageous).

3. Don’t give up! Stay awake, stay vigilant.

Give yourself space in which to think.

“You should not continue to set yourself up for hurt and disappointment. If you have been in an abusive relationship, you should wait until it is safe and until real patterns of change have been demonstrated before you go back.” (Boundaries book, pg. 38)

Again, in the case of narcissistic parents, they are never going to get it. You should talk to your therapist about that fact and about toxic relationships.

4. Take your time.

As you awaken, you will find yourself with all sorts of emotions rushing through you. Emotionally abused children usually do not have a great gamut of emotions, so many of these feelings will be uncomfortable, difficult to stand, inspire guilt. For example, you will feel anger towards your abusive parents—and then, you will feel guilt about thinking such terrible things about your parents. That’s natural. You’ve been set up your entire life to only think of your parents’ feelings and not your own… but that’s going to change. Take your time, explore different emotions, go to therapy regularly.

The adult child will have a hard time slowing down, at first. The child within them is used to jumping to serve the abusive parent and reacting quickly without thinking, for fear of punishment. But you no longer have to fear your abusive parent. Take  your time. Take all the time you need… as long as you move away from the abuse and toward healing.

5. Educate yourself about emotional child abuse.

You’ll be going through myriad emotions, so you should read to better understand how healing is a process and will not happen overnight. You can find a starter’s recommended readings here.

In the book Boundaries: When to Say Yes, How to Say No and Take Control of Your Lifeby Dr. Henry Cloud and John Townsend, the clinical psychologists discuss the severe impact of being raised without boundaries and its affects into adulthood. Also, look at the various sites here for information about emotional child abuse and healing.

6. Be patient and loving with yourself. 

This merits repeating. Many adult children who awaken grow furious at themselves for having taken the abuse for so long. Be kind to yourself, however. The emotionally abused child that you were had no understanding that the abuse was not normal. The emotionally abused child was raised in emotional captivity—how could she or he know about anything else? View the fact that you have emerged from such captivity now as a miracle. Be grateful that you are awakening. 

7. Surround yourself with good, supportive friends.

Humans are social creatures. We need others. We need community. The awakening to one’s abusive childhood can make the adult child feel like they have no one in the world… but they do. Turn to good friends (some friends may share their own similar stories). If you don’t have friends who can relate to you or offer the emotional support you need, consider online forums for help. (Just make sure the fit is right. You want healing and resources for healing with healthy doses of ranting—not constant nonstop ranting.)

“Fear of being alone keeps many in hurtful patterns for years. They are afraid that if they set boundaries, they will not have any love in their life. When they open themselves up to support from others, however, they find that the abusive person is not the only source of love in the world and that they can find the strength through their support system to set the limits they need to set… The other reason we need others is because we need new input and teaching.” (Boundaries book, pg. 39)

8. Understand you may lose friends and family members—but let them go.

 When an adult survivor begins to process his abusive childhood, he will start becoming a different person, a more authentic self. The mask of “the perfect upbringing” or the “happy childhood” is stripped as the adult comes to understand that what happened in childhood was neither normal or healthy. Some people in the survivor’s life will have a huge problem accepting what is happening.

If your abusive parents were a great part of your life, your social circles may overlap. Word of your “needing space” will spread through your social circles. If your parents are particularly destructive, they may spread terrible rumors about you and do everything they can to convince mutual friends and relatives that you are mentally ill, that you are a liar, that you are somehow suffering a breakdown.  Narcissistic parents will tear down their child to save themselves and their positive image; they will even claim to not know what is happening or why you are not happy in the relationship.

Know that, if your abusive parents are abusive in secret, most people will take their side. If your parents are charming and “pillars of the community,” you will find yourself alone in your truth.  

Don’t cave in. Go to therapy. Educate yourself. Hold fast to the truth. Better to be alone in the truth than in the company of liars and their followers.


You may also find some of your closest friends not believing you and turning from you. They remember you as a happy person, always compliant, always talking about how wonderful your childhood was… They will have problems understanding that you were raised in a dictatorship, that you always used the wording that those in charge made you use, that you knew all the dictator’s slogans about being happy—and yet, deep inside, you were dying emotionally. Some friends may reject the hurting you because they do not want to either look at their own childhood, look at their own parenting, or look for a truly caring relationship.

Let the people walking away from you go. Let them go. True friends, good friends from the heart, will come and replace them in time.

“The problem with friends and family is that they know us as we are. They are invested in maintaining us as we are. The last thing we want is to remain as we are… With some exceptions (God bless them), friends and family are the enemy of this unmanifested you, this unborn self, this future being. Prepare yourself to make new friends. They will appear, trust me.” (author Steven Pressfield, “Do the Work)

Remaining steadfast in your pursuit of an authentic life will be difficult—but you will not regret it. Your heart will hurt. You will feel sad. But you will also feel a deep sense of empowerment and self-respect—new feelings to the abused child.

9. Keep a journal.

journalWrite down what you are going through. Don’t stress about proper grammar, punctuation, etc. Just write whatever you feel. Get it out. Like Winston Smith in George Orwell’s novel “Nineteen Eighty-Four,” you must write your true feelings.

Write about…

    • Memories that come up (Don’t edit yourself. Let it all out.)
    • What pisses you off and what pissed you off (Your journal will never tell you to stop ranting. It will never tell you to just let it go.)
    • What is happening in your relationship with your abusive parents.
    • Good advice that you may have received.
    • Epiphanies that you may have had
    • Whatever you want to write about
    • Quotes that inspire you.
    • Your side of arguments.

Don’t forget that you can also use the journal to draw your thoughts, sketch things, and even clip out magazine articles and glue them on pages.

The journal will prove a worthy companion on your road to healing. It will show you the places you’ve been and the progress that you have made. 

10. Be mindful of your relationships.

In awakening, the adult child may realize that many of his/her relationships mirror the same destructive pattern as the one they have with their parents. The adult child, not knowing any better, may have friends who treat them with the same abusive language and attitude that they have had in their youth. If you come to this realization, again, be gentle with yourself. You didn’t know. In captivity, you made friends with captors of different sizes and colors and shapes. But now, you can change this. You can choose your relationships. 

11. Pray or meditate.

Praying to a higher power can help you focus on the ultimate relationship. It also helps you reach beyond yourself, beyond the human relationships, to find the love that does not fail. However, some abused children have had their religious faith or beliefs used against them by their abusers. Know that the abuse comes from people, not God. Talk to your priest, minister, rabbi, etc. to discuss your conflicted feelings. It’s all right.

12. Let yourself receive love.

If you have a good circle of friends, if you have a spouse who understands what is happening, let yourself receive that love, support, and understanding. The adult survivor can find it hard to be loved. (“How can anyone love me if my own parents didn’t?”) But know that your parents’ failure to love you is a failure in them—not you. You are lovable.  

13. Accept change.

Your life will change in both enormous and very tiny ways once you awaken to the truth. Holidays, Sunday dinners, etc., will be different once  you have distanced yourself from your abusive parents. At first, you will feel a crippling loneliness… but then remember the truth of how those holidays or dinners were. You may have had some beautiful moments in your relationship with your abusive parents—but be honest with yourself. How many good moments did you really have? How wonderful were those events really? 

You now have the opportunity to make your own traditions for holidays and events and Sunday dinners. You no longer have to abide by rules and decrees put into place by your abusive parents.

You get to be the adult. Embrace that fact. 

14. Find a creative outlet.

Take up running, knitting, drawing, sailing, sewing, woodworking—anything. Your mind and heart will be going into overdrive as you awaken. You need to find something that can be a healthy balm on your frayed nerves and fragile heart.speak-the-truth

15. Don’t give up.

Don’t give up. Don’t quit. Rest, sure. Take a little time to just lose yourself in music or TV or books for a little while… then continue on. DON’T QUIT. Don’t stop on your path to healing. Sometimes, the sorrow will be biting and cold—but don’t quit.

Know you are worthy of love, of respect, of kindness, of happiness, of dignity.

Know you matter.

Know that your life does make a difference.

Just waking up to the fact you had an emotionally abusive childhood?  This 92-page PDF can help you during this difficult time. For just $7.99, you receive What Really Happened: Finding Out You Had an Emotionally Abusive Childhood (and Tips for Healing).

veronica-jarski_authorVeronica Jarski is founder and managing editor of The Invisible Scar, a passion project dedicated to raising awareness of emotional child abuse and its effects on adult survivors. She has extensive editorial experience and a bachelor’s degree in journalism. Her work has been featured on myriad publications, such as Kapost, MarketingProfs, and Ragan.



356 thoughts on “For Adult Survivors of Emotional Child Abuse

  1. Dear Invisible Star,
    I am grateful for finding this site and want to express my respect for your work doing this blog. I am 32-years-old and I am a survivor of child and medical abuse. Due to lots of unfortunate circumstances I never felt so understood like reading this page. The big amount of reading material gives us all a new chance for a better life. Thanks and good luck for you all.

    Liked by 1 person

  2. Sadly for me the years of abuse has made me very much a loner. Brothers and sisters not close not close with most relatives. Sick of hearing we thought something was going on but thought not our business to say anything.


  3. What if you are aware of the abuse but you have let it ruin your life? I am 36 and have had self destructive habits for some time. I quit a job where i was making 6 figures in June and am now living in a small bedroom crying my eyes out every night. I have never been married, haven’t had a relationship in over 10 years(fear of intimacy, rejection, worthlessness), lost all my friends long ago, and feel like I’m living in hell. Anxiety and depression have ruled my life, along with a spinal fusion back surgery. So….my question to you is….What are your thoughts on ACOA? I have no health insurance now and have been reading about attending ACOA meetings. I have to put the pieces together and heal my life.

    Liked by 1 person

    1. ACOA meetings really really helped me. I’d definitely recommend them to you. They are for anyone with a dysfunctional childhood – my parents didn’t even drink but were mentally ill.


    2. Hang in there. Life will get better. My hubby just began to understand his childhood trauma a few years ago. We both grew up in abusive homes but are determined to break the cycle together. Even though we met at low points in our lives, we’re making it work. You can do it! Forgive yourself. It’s not your fault.

      Liked by 1 person

  4. My dad broke my arm when I was 12 years old by being too rough in one of his sick play fights. Both of my bones were cleanly snapped in my forearm so my hand was literally hanging off and flopping about. My mother tried to force a wet rag into my mouth to stop me from screaming in agony as we were in a hotel room. Dad belittled me my whole life. Said I was weak because I had a deformed arm after he snapped it off. At 31 years old after moving away due to non acceptance of my mental issues I’m finally happy to never speak to my sick narcissistic alcoholic parents ever again. No one protected me when I needed it most. I’m still alive. That poor weak child who was dominated by a grown man had the heart of a lion. I thank God for showing me these horrible things as a child so I can maybe help other people in the future. Be strong anyone who is isolated with no confidence. I am one of these people too. God chooses his hardest tasks for his strongest people.

    Liked by 1 person

    1. The story of how your father broke you arm and mother covered your mouth made me cry. I wish I could heal you. You deserve peace and love.


  5. This is one of the BEST and helpful articles written on emotional abuse in the family. Not only helps with your life now, but frees you from your guilt from staying with abusers. You didn’t know different. You wanted family and roots, and above all love. It was never really there. A good article that helps you move forward in the future and to be alert and cut out abusive/user types, which there are many. Many more than you would ever expect. Alone with self respect wins every single time. Don’t be afraid of that.


  6. Sounds like a great idea Jennifer, I know that the program has helped me through the years when I was single and alone with no support, but achieved it from therapy, and through building my own confidence. It took years of finding myself and building healthy boundaries with my emotionally/psychologically, & alcohol/drug dependent family.


  7. I read this at 5am and balled my eyes out while listening to powerful music. This has opened my eyes tremendously. I never realized the extent of my childhood abuse until I ready this. I related to every single form of emotional abuse. I am awaken for sure. I want to empower myself and heal my wounds i have been trying to cover up for years. Thank you so much for writting this wonderful article 🙂

    Liked by 2 people

    1. Thank-You for “Awakening me”. Omg, I am just reading of every thing my parents made me live with/like has a name: “Child Abuse” verbally and physically. I wish to God that I could have learned along time ago, you see I am 63.


  8. Thank you so much for this information. It has empowered me in just one reading and I can identify so much with what you’ve written. It has taken me until now, returning to my parent’s home to live temporarily for the first time in 20 years, to realise how emotionally abusive they are.

    I am really grateful for your guidance ❤

    Liked by 2 people

    1. Jagruti, same situation. But it is just my adoptive(@ 3 months) mother left and I dragged my hubby, 25,23 & 15 yr. old into it otherwise we would be homeless. Even though she isn’t my biological mother, even though growing up she called me adopted bitch, I still consider her my mother as I knew no different. When I found out I had to come here I had 2 months of straight panic attacks & anxiety attacks. Had to be put on different meds until I found something to calm it so it was bearable. My family and I thought it was just the move from our beloved place. As it got closer I knew exactly the nightmare we were walking into. We’ll be out within the next month for a total of almost 3 months. We will never engage this woman ever again. She is 81 & hit my 47 yr old brother last week and almost hit me twice for calling her out on abusing us. It’s scary and tragic. She has 6 people here who love her and would do anything for her, help her all the time, nothing is appreciated, nothing is good enough, she just trashes all of us. My brother has been caring/living with her for years after a divorce. So of his 47 yrs he was not abused for about 7 of them.


  9. I was severely emotionally abused by my father, and to a lesser extent by my unstable narcissistic mother and my step-mother. Now I am abused by store clerks, police officers, neighbors, bank clerks, teachers, strangers in the street. Nobody, not ONE single person observing this treatment, has ever remarked that it was inappropriate. How many people does it take until somebody gives a damn?

    Liked by 2 people

    1. I sometimes am a little bit jaleous of mistreaten puppies, behause they might have a chance at somebody helping them, but with mistreaten children too many times nobody wants „to get involved”. Which is plain indifference or cowardice.
      But there is always somebody who can learn to care. You.
      And I do care.
      I never write replies, but your comment got to me. Without knowing you, I do care.


  10. I came across this blog while searching for information about something along the lines of “why am I always feeling sad and down, in and out of depression” etc., basically something I’ve been trying to figure out for years and years. To say that the information that I’ve read on this site has changed my life would be an understatement. I’ve read everything on here, and the links on here led me to read a lot of the books written by Alice Miller (someone I found out about thanks to this site) and to also google for other material on this topic (and the search was made easier now that I knew what I was searching for) and it’s honestly been so eye opening. This process began about a year ago and it’s helped me so much. I just wanted to say thank you for creating this site and thank you for making this information easily accessible. I hope it helps others improve their lives in the way it’s helped me. I honestly can’t thank you enough. It’s like this massive weight has been lifted and I wouldn’t have been able to heal in the way I have if I hadn’t come across all this information. I’ve still got a long way to go to heal fully and it’s hard work for sure, but now at least I’m heading in the right direction. Thanks

    Liked by 1 person

  11. This article is so therapeutic for me. I am not in therapy but absolutely should be. My mother has three separate mental illnesses that overlap each other one of which is borderline personality disorder. I was emotionally abused as a child and have been abused and manipulated by her as an adult. I am an only child and she was a single parent. Looking back I feel a lot of sadness because I had no one to confide in. No siblings, no extended relatives because my mother completely isolated me from anyone who wasn’t her. She was either too paranoid of other people or actively tried to manipulate me into mistrusting forming relationships with others when I tried to reach out. It is truly a miracle that I have never tried to self medicate to escape the many toxic things that went on between my mother and I. I have four children of my own and the thing I am most afraid of is being like my mother. I try every day to make sure I have a healthy relationship with my kids. I want to make sure they never have to “recover” from having me as their mother the way I have had to with my own. Articles like this are extremely helpful in helping people like me to see I am not alone.


  12. Today is Mother’s Day. Upon searching for something to read about parental emotional abuse, came across this site, and am thankful. I am 62 years old. Lifelong memories of emotional abuse by who I refer to as my ‘birth woman’ instead of mother. My siblings side with her. My father after years of believing her lies became aware of her ways and means, but devolved into a long lasting depression, upon dying said to me “don’t let them get to you” and I promised, but of course that promise is extremely difficult to keep. In my case, upon distancing myself from my birth woman and my siblings, they ranked up their viciousness. My birth woman’s instinctual acting abilities are Oscar-winning. I have spent many years seeking what’s what within my siblings’ minds, and presently there is a mixture of chivalry mixed with believing her lies, and problems within their own psyche that finds nurture while being part of this group. The article above is just what I need to read today. I am moving positively forward in life.


  13. I read this post tonight and it is the first thing iv ever read that has made me feel like I’m not really alone. Currently I’m laid in bed having just been told by my mam that I the most ungenuine person she has ever met and I’m spoilt and selfish.

    To rewind, I have spent my whole childhood scared of hurting mums feelings. Scared to do or say anything wrong. Three years ago she told me she was dying. For three years I gave up my teen years, through away my exam results and built myself to lose the one person I have ever trusted. The one person I thought had never lied to me. It got to a point she was in hospice. Then they found out it was a lie. She made it up. And not once has she ever offered an explanation.

    We all just carried on as f everything was normal. That’s how it works in our family. She controls our whole house. She controls me. She even has my bank details and gets all my emails. I’m 22. I need help. She makes me feel like I’m just over reacting to everything and actually I had a great childhood and I’m really lucky. But it’s not true. I don’t know how to get away from this. I feel so trapped.


  14. I reached that breaking point a couple of days ago, and said I don’t want to work for them anymore. At first I was very scared of leaving, but eventually I packed my bags and caught a bus and stayed with my younger brother, he’s 22 and already working. He understood our family dynamics and was the one who convinced me to get out of our house already and leave. I am 27 and lived with my parents because I help in the family business. I was convinced that I will never be successful unless I worked for the money, aka for them. And now I am not so sure anymore, and everything I tried to deny about them, I am slowly processing the facts and acknowledging that I was emotionally abused. the guilt tripping and emotional blackmail are not normal!!!

    Thanks to this article, I am slowly educating myself about this reality and try not to feel guilty about leaving. It validates that the emotions I had gone through serious and cannot be brushed off easily. Because it messes with my head and person.


  15. I am wondering if the ’emptiness’ within me will ever go away. I am an adult who was emotionally, mentally & physically ( beaten) abused by my mother. I developed suicidal tendencies at a young age because I felt death was a better option, she knew I had made attempts on my life & she didn’t care. I have no contact with her now ( she has always denied the abuse) , I have no contact with any of my family. They were ‘toxic’ in my life & I wasn’t worth anything in that family. DNA is the only thing that binds us. I am a single parent & I have achieved alot on my own & come a long way to heal myself. But I can’t feel anything but emptiness inside, I feel dead. I have no friends, I trust no one & I destroy my own relationships, so I don’t bother anymore. I always attract people who I know will hurt me because I believed I didn’t deserve any better. To look at me, people percieve me as a strong woman, I am because I have to be, if I don’t watch my own back, no one else will. I want to feel alive inside but how do I do that when my ‘spirit’ was murdered as a child, how do you revive the dead? I am crying inside, I want to scream but I won’t allow anyone near me anymore, I have no trust. Why was I treated this way, I was a good kid….


  16. Took me 39 years to finally admit some of these things to myself. I’m still angry that it took me so long to properly confront the issue in my own mind, even though I knew there was a problem by the time I was 11. But this of course all makes sense now, so I cant blame myself. At least I can go about forgiving and fixing myself now. This article helped a lot to bring things into clarity, I’ve never quite read anything that felt so personal to me and relieving that I’m not alone, I keep it bookmarked for when I need a little strength. Thank you.


Feel free to comment.

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: Logo

You are commenting using your account. Log Out /  Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s

%d bloggers like this: